It depends on how well your recovery is after cataract surgery. it is very common for people to go back for work in just a few days after cataract surgery. But it is suggested that patients should rest at least for 3 days after cataract surgery.
That varies according your condition. If you get recovery very quickly and your work won't affect your eyes, you can return to work the day after surgery. In most cases, people who have lasik surgery will return to work after a week so that their eyes have enough time to get recovery.