No. Cataracts won't come back again after the cataract surgery because the natural lenses are removed and replaced with man made lenses. And only the natural lens can result in a cataract. However, lens capsule may become cloudy a year or more after cataract surgery, which has similar symptoms to a cataract. Nevertheless, it is not a cataract actually.
Once you have cataract surgery, cataracts won't come back again as the natural lens has been removed. However, many people find they have cataract again after the surgery. This is because the lens capsule become cloudy, which is similar to a cataract. To treat this problem, a procedure called a YAG Laser Capsulotomy can be applied.