No, sneezing can't cause your eyes to pop out. Eye sockets have no connection with nose. When you sneeze, it has no possibility for a sneeze from your nose get into your eyes. A sneeze can't put pressure on your eye sockets and lead to pressure your eyeballs as well. Moreover, if there is no muscle or force behind eyes to push or contract your eyes, eyes can't pop out either. Though you open your eyes when you sneeze, it doesn't matter because eyelids don't have that power to push the your eyes outward.
Yes, it may cause such problems. When we sneeze, our eyes will unconsciously close because of the pressure from the inner body. However, if you open your eyes, the great pressure from the body may make your eyeballs pop out. It is so dangerous. You should not open your eyes on purpose when you sneeze.