Sweetie, if you mean expose your bare eyes under the sunlight, I think you'd better wear a pair of sunglasses. Sunglasses can block UV coating and protect our eyes. If you mean how to observe the sun, you can make a pin-hole lens. You just need to take two pieces of cardboard and one of them should be thin. And then make a small hole in the middle of the thin piece. The hole should be as round as possible. And then hold the piece of thin cardboard between the sun and the other piece. You can observe the sun now. And if you change the distance between the two pieces of cardboard, you will get different phenomenon.
Yes, ultraviolet radiation from sunlight and other sources will lead to cataracts. And the sunlight can tint the whites of our eyes and make the withes of our eyes become yellow. The workers who often work in the outside should adopt some ways to protect their eyes. And usually we need to wear sunglasses when we go out in summer.
Looking at the sun is very dangerous. You should never try to observe it by bare eyes though the sun is a very beautiful and powerful force of nature. You need to observe it through some shades. But you can't stare the sun for a long time because it can irritate your eyes. Or you can look at the sun behind tinted glass. You can observe the sun through tinted windows of the car. But you can just observe it for a few moments. Good luck!
Do not look at the Sun or a solar eclipse with your naked eyes. Looking at the Sun without proper solar filters or other such protection, even briefly, could hurt your eyes, and possible cause blindness. So, wearing a pair of sunglasses and sun shelter is necessary.