Peripheral vision is the stuff you see out of the corner of your eye. Good for spotting incoming baseballs to the head. Central vision is the important stuff you need to read, to recognize faces, and to do everyday tasks. Central vision is formed through light signals received by the macula, the most sensitive part of the retina.
Peripheral vision is a part of vision that occurs outside the very center of gaze. There is a broad set of non-central points in the field of view that is included in the notion of peripheral vision. "Far peripheral" vision exists at the edges of the field of view, "mid-peripheral" vision exists in the middle of the field of view, and "near-peripheral", sometimes referred to as "para-central" vision, exists adjacent to the center of gaze.