After a cataract surgery, your eyes will get the basic recovery after a week. However, usually a month will be needed to protect the eyes. You'd better not travel after the cataract surgery which may blow the wind into your eyes to let your eyes get infection. Thus, you'd better not travel.
You'd better not travel by plane after cataract surgery if you want to keep eye health. Though the high altitude won't affect your eyes. But patient who always accompany with dry eyes. And if you take plane, it will make your dry eyes serious, and you are not allow to take too much liquid products. So, i recommend you not take plane within 30 days. Anyway, you can consult to your surgeon who will know better about your eyes than anyone of us here.
Cataract surgery is a minor ophthalmic surgery. Generally vision can be improved after two days later. Based on the patient's specific eye and body recovery, the vision will restore in 5-7days. However it will last longer due to higher inflammation after surgery for the individual patients.
After 3 months, the Crystalline lens will be stable. So if you want to travel, it is better to travel after 3 months later or longer.