You can look at the sun through the camera. However if the sunshine is too strong, you'd better not do this because of the uv rays in the sunshine. It will make great harm for your eyes. You need to wear the sunglasses to protect your eyes. You should not use the naked eyes to stare at the strong sunshine which will hurt your visual nerves of the eyes.
Well, in my opinion, it will be fine to look sun through the camera. So you do not need to worry about it. Generally speaking, as we know that there are many different rays in sun light, such as uv rays. And they can be very harmful for our eyes. That is why we could not watch sun directly. Or it will just damage our eyes, leading to some serious eye problems. What is worse, vision loss is possible. But on the other hand, we can see it through camera, for camera glasses can protect our eyes from harmful lights.
No, you can't. Looking at the sun through a camera is not different from gazing at the sun with your eyes. It is extremely harmful to your eyes. The sun will do permanent damage to your retina and cause solar retinopathy or even blindness. If you want to take photos of the sun, you need specialized camera which can filter the light.